Pituitary Gland Surgeries

Pituitary gland surgeries are crucial procedures aimed at effectively and safely treating pituitary tumors. Professor Dr. Yousry Anwar El-Hamili, a renowned professor in the Department of Neurosurgery and Spine Surgery at Cairo University Medical School, offers advanced techniques and specialized care in this field.

In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of pituitary gland surgeries, including the various surgical options, indications, and benefits of each option, as well as post-operative care and recovery. We highlight the latest techniques used in pituitary surgeries and their precise application to achieve satisfactory and tangible results for patients.

With his extensive experience and high surgical skills, Professor Dr. Yousry El-Hamili provides exceptional surgical services to treat pituitary tumors with precision and safety. He emphasizes the importance of specialized care to achieve the best outcomes for the patient’s health. Below are the key details.

Overview of Pituitary Tumors

Pituitary tumors are benign (non-cancerous) in most cases, with malignant (cancerous) tumors being less than 1% of cases. Pituitary tumors can cause symptoms due to their size and pressure on nearby structures. Large pituitary tumors can compress the optic nerves, affecting vision, and damage surrounding pituitary tissue, leading to deficiencies in some or all hormones produced by the pituitary gland.

Occasionally, pituitary tumors produce hormones abnormally, most commonly prolactin-secreting tumors. Other pituitary tumors may produce steroid hormones or growth hormones.

Pituitary Gland Surgeries and Indications

Most pituitary gland surgeries are performed through the nose, allowing surgeons to access the gland easily without causing significant harm to the patient.

A pituitary gland surgery is usually recommended if the tumor is benign but causes issues such as:

  • Pressure on the optic nerve, leading to vision impairment.
  • Abnormal hormone secretion, sometimes resulting in excess hormone production.
  • Reduced hormone levels due to the tumor compressing the pituitary gland.
  • Bleeding in the pituitary gland caused by tumor pressure.

Surgical outcomes typically depend on the type, size, and location of the pituitary tumor and whether it has spread to surrounding tissues.

Surgical Procedures for Removing Pituitary Tumors

  • Endoscopic Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgery
  • Transcranial Surgery

Endoscopic Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgery

This surgery, also known as adenectomy, is the most common procedure for removing pituitary tumors. During this surgery, a neurosurgeon, in collaboration with an ENT surgeon, removes the tumor through the nose and sinuses.


  • No external surgical incision required.
  • Does not affect other parts of the brain.
  • Leaves no visible scar.
  • May be challenging for removing large tumors, especially those that have spread to adjacent nerves or blood vessels.

Steps of Endoscopic Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgery:

  1. The patient is anesthetized and prepared for surgery.
  2. The ENT surgeon inserts an endoscope through the nose, possibly through an incision under the upper lip in some cases.
  3. The endoscope is advanced to the bony wall of the sphenoid sinus at the back of the nose.
  4. The sphenoid sinus is opened, and the endoscope is passed through to the back wall of the sinus.
  5. A small opening is made in the back wall of the sinus.
  6. MRI imaging may be used during surgery to guide the surgeons.
  7. The neurosurgeon removes the pituitary tumor in small pieces.
  8. The endoscope is withdrawn, and nasal packing is placed to complete the procedure.

Transcranial Surgery (Craniotomy)

Transcranial surgery, or craniotomy, is used less frequently than transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery for treating pituitary tumors. It facilitates access to and removal of large tumors or tumors that have spread to nearby nerves or brain tissue.


  • Easier access to large tumors or those spread to adjacent nerves or tissues.
  • Better visibility of the tumor and surrounding brain structures for the surgeon.

Steps of Transcranial Surgery:

  1. The patient undergoes general anesthesia.
  2. The patient is positioned on the operating table, and the scalp is cleaned and prepared.
  3. An incision is made in the scalp, possibly shaving a small area if necessary, to expose the skull.
  4. A craniotomy is performed to remove a part of the skull for brain access.
  5. The brain’s protective membrane is cut and lifted to access brain tissue.
  6. The brain is gently elevated to create a safe pathway to the pituitary gland.
  7. The tumor is located and carefully removed.
  8. Any active bleeding is controlled, and the surgical site is closed in layers, with the skull piece replaced.
  9. The muscles and scalp are stitched to facilitate healing.

Post-Operative Care for Pituitary Surgeries

After pituitary gland surgery, the patient receives post-operative care to expedite recovery and ensure desired results. Post-operative care typically includes:

  • Monitoring Vital Signs: In the recovery room as the patient wakes from anesthesia to ensure stability.
  • Transfer to a Room or ICU: For close monitoring, especially after complex surgeries.
  • Managing Symptoms: Such as nausea and headaches, with appropriate treatment.
  • Psychological Support: For dealing with physical and emotional changes post-surgery.
  • Continuous Follow-Up: With a multidisciplinary team to ensure stability and compensate for any hormone deficiencies.
  • Home Care Instructions: Including dietary advice and physical activity guidelines after surgery.
  • Adherence to Medical Instructions: Ensuring successful recovery and a swift return to normal life.

Best Surgeon for Pituitary Gland Surgeries in Egypt

Professor Dr. Yousry Anwar El-Hamili and his medical team have earned an excellent reputation as the best in the field of neurosurgery and spine surgery for the following reasons:

  • Extensive Experience: In pituitary and neurosurgeries.
  • Strong Scientific Background: And deep practical training in providing surgical care.
  • Skill and Precision: In performing surgeries, making him an ideal choice for pituitary gland surgical treatments.
  • Personalized Care: For each patient, focusing on meeting their health needs with individualized attention.
  • Exceptional Attention to Detail: Making him and his team a trusted and recommended choice for safe and effective pituitary surgeries.

If you seek the expertise and exceptional care provided by Professor Dr. Yousry Anwar El-Hamili in pituitary gland surgeries, book your consultation today and start your journey toward recovery.